- The Siddis were brought to India by Arabs, the Portuguese and the Dutch.
Enrich Your Learning:
Native tribal groups of western ghats
- The hill tribes or Adivasis (original inhabitants) as they are called, account for barely 5% of the area population in the Western Ghats.
The Tribes of the Nilgiris
- The Todas are found in Nilgiris Range of Tamil Nadu.
- Their traditional dress is Roman type toga, covered by a shawl.
- Buffaloes are important animals for the Todas.
- Their language is Dravidian in origin.
- Their hamlets are called munds.
- Todas practice polyandry.
- Found in the hill ranges of Biligiri Rangaswamy and Malai Mahadeshwara in Karnataka.
- Primarily semi-nomadic, in recent years are more or less live a sedentary existence in small forest villages called
- The staple food of Soligas is ragi.
- The crop cultivation practices are quite primitive, and their agriculture is known by the name kalakodu besaya.
- The Soligas have their medicine system known as naru beru aushadhi (roots and tuber medicine).
- Hallaki Vokkals are confined to the coastal areas of Karnataka.
- They are
- Mud walls and floors of their thatched huts are elaborately decorated with Hali ( White rangoli against black or red background).
- Women are extremely hardworking, and a bridegroom has to pay Tara (bride price) to his father-in-law before the wedding.
- The Siddis are the descendants of African Negroes, who were brought to India mainly by Arabs, the Portuguese and the Dutch.
- They live in small clusters constituting a distinct settlement of a village or independent settlement. Their occupation is agriculture and hunter-gatherers.
- They speak Are-Marathi, a mixture of Marathi, Konkani and Kannada.
Tribals of Kerala:
- The Paniya, a major tribal community in Kerala live in the hills of Wayanad.
- The headman of Paniya settlement is called Kuttan, and the head of the family is Mudali
- The Paniya priest Chemmi wields authority over a group of settlements.
- They practice monogamy and widows are allowed to marry.
- This is another of the slave tribes and the community is divided into subgroups called the
- The headman of the Mandu is called Peruman.
- Polygamy is not a taboo among them.
- This is a primitive tribe and the Kattunayakans live in jungles and are mainly engaged In collecting forest produce and honey.
- The headman is called Muthan whose decisions are always final.
- The Kattunayakans worship animals, birds, trees and other Hindu deities and firmly believe in black magic and sorcery.
- The Kuruchiyans are an agricultural tribal community and they are excellent archers who joined Pazhassi Raja in the fight against British.
- They live in small though clean houses and do not encourage drinking alcohol except on festive occasions.
Distribution of the Tribes of Northern and Central Western Ghats (Gujarat, Maharashtra and Goa)
- Bhils are considered to be amongst the oldest settlers in the country.
- They derive their name from the Dravidian word Billu, which means bow.
- They live in isolation, go for hunting, fishing, practice shifting cultivation.
- The Warlis are mainly residents of Maharashtra and Gujarat.
- Their tribal paintings are different from other folk and tribal art.
- They are painted on mud, charcoal, cow dung based surfaces using only white colour, and are decorated with series of dots in red and yellow.
- Their paintings are influenced by the seasonal cycle as their life around them is directly reflected in the paintings.
Goa tribes include Gaude, Velip, Dhangar and Kunbi.