Prelims 2020

Prelims Booster 2020 Flash Cards Set-4 [Static]

This is Prelims Booster 2020 Flash Cards Set-4 [Static]
By IASToppers
September 22, 2020

 

 

 

Article 78 of the Indian Constitution deals with?

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Solution: It deals with the duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President.

Enrich Your Learning:

Duties of Prime Minister: 

  • Article 78 of the Indian constitution deals with the duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President.

The duties of the Prime Minister include:

  • To communicate to the President all decisions of the council of ministers relating to the administration of the affairs of the Union and proposals for legislation.
  • To furnish such information relating to the administration of the affairs of the Union and proposals for legislation as the President may call for.
  • If the President so requires, to submit for the consideration of the council of ministers any matter on which a decision has been taken by a minister but which has not been considered by the council.

 

 

 

The concept of Blue Growth is similar in many respects to that of the Blue Economy. True or False?

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Answer:

True.

The concept of Blue Growth is similar in many respects to that of the Blue Economy.

Enrich Your Learning:

Blue Growth Initiative

  • The Blue Growth Initiative is FAO’s framework for sustainably developing fisheries and aquaculture.
  • Blue Growth differs from business as usual in the fisheries and aquaculture sectors, which focused on single interests, such as producing more fish or safeguarding the environment, and did not prioritize social benefits.
  • The concept of Blue Growth is similar in many respects to that of the Blue Economy—a concept that came out of Rio +20, which centres on the pillars of sustainable development: environmental, economic, and social.

Objective

  • To maximize economic and social benefits while minimizing environmental degradation from these sectors.
  • The goal of Blue Growth Initiative aligned with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (supported by the Sustainable Development Goals—SDGs).

A sustainable aquaculture strategy needs:

  • A recognition of the fact that farmers earn a fair reward from farming
  • To ensure that benefits and costs are shared equitably
  • To promote wealth and job creation
  • To make sure that enough food is accessible to all
  • To manage the environment for the benefit of future generations
  • To ensure that aquaculture development is orderly, with both authorities and industry well organized

Aquaculture to develop its full potential so that:

  • Communities prosper and people are healthier.
  • There are more opportunities for improved livelihoods, with an increased income and better nutrition.
  • Farmers and women are empowered.

 

 

 

In context of budgetary documents, which budgetary paper shows the liabilities of the Government on account of securities (bonds) issued in lieu of oil and fertilizer subsidies in the past?

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Solution:

  • Receipt Budget shows liabilities of the Government on account of securities (bonds) issued in lieu of oil and fertilizer subsidies in the past. This was earlier called ‘Statement of Revenue Foregone’ and brought out as a separate statement in 2015-16. This has been merged in the Receipts Budget from 2016-17 onwards.

Enrich Your Learning:

Budget documents of 2020-21:

The Budget documents presented to Parliament comprise, besides the Finance Minister’s Budget Speech, of the following:

  1. Annual Financial Statement (AFS):
  • The core budget document, shows estimated receipts and disbursements by the Government of India for a particular financial year (FY) in relation to estimates for previous FY.
  • The receipts and disbursements are shown under the three parts, in which Government Accounts are kept viz.,(i) Consolidated Fund, (ii) Contingency Fund and (iii) Public Account.
  • Under the Constitution, Annual Financial Statement distinguishes expenditure on revenue account from other expenditure. Government Budget, therefore, comprises Revenue Budget and Capital Budget. The estimates of expenditure included in the Annual Financial Statement are for the net expenditure, i.e., after taking into account the recoveries, as will be reflected in the accounts.
  1. Demands for Grants (DG):
  • Article 113 of the Constitution mandates that the estimates of expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of India included in the Annual Financial Statement and required to be voted by the Lok Sabha, be submitted in the form of Demands for Grants. The Demands for Grants are presented to the Lok Sabha along with the Annual Financial Statement.
  • More than one Demand may be presented for a Ministry or Department. A separate Demand is presented for Union Territories without Legislature.
  • Each Demand initially gives separately the totals of (i)’voted’ and ‘charged’ expenditure; (ii) the ‘revenue’ and the ‘capital’ expenditure and (iii) the grand total on gross basis of the amount of expenditure for which the Demand is presented. This is followed by the estimates of expenditure, amounts of recoveries and net amount of expenditure under different major heads of account.
  1. Finance Bill
  • At the time of presentation of the Annual Financial Statement before the Parliament, a Finance Bill is also presented in fulfilment of the requirement of Article 110 (1)(a) of the Constitution, detailing the imposition, abolition, alteration or regulation of taxes proposed in the Budget.
  • It also contains other provisions relating to Budget that could be classified as Money Bill. A Finance Bill is a Money Bill as defined in Article 110 of the Constitution.
  1. Statements mandated under FRBM Act:
  2. i) Macro-Economic Framework Statement

It is presented to Parliament under Section 3 of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003.

What does it contain?

  • An assessment of the growth prospects of the economy along with the statement of specific underlying assumptions.
  • An assessment regarding the GDP growth rate, the domestic economy and the stability of the external sector of the economy, fiscal balance of the Central Government and the external sector balance of the economy.
  1. ii) Medium-Term Fiscal Policy cum Fiscal Policy Strategy Statement

Presented to Parliament under Section 3 of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003.

It sets out the three-year rolling targets for six specific fiscal indicators in relation to GDP at market prices, namely (i) Fiscal Deficit, (ii) Revenue Deficit, (iii) Primary Deficit (iv) Tax Revenue (v) Non-tax Revenue and (vi) Central Government Debt.

What does it contain?

  • Assessment of the balance between revenue receipts and revenue expenditure and the use of capital receipts for the creation of productive assets.
  • Outlines for the existing financial year, the strategic priorities of the Government relating to taxation, expenditure, lending and investments.
  • Explains how the current fiscal policies are in conformity with sound fiscal management principles and gives the rationale for any major deviation in key fiscal measures.
  1. Expenditure Budget
  • The provisions made for a scheme or a programme may be spread over a number of Major Heads in the Revenue and Capital sections in a Demand for Grants.
  • In the Expenditure Budget, the estimates made for a scheme/programme are brought together and shown on a net basis on Revenue and Capital basis at one place.
  1. Receipt Budget

Estimates of receipts included in the Annual Financial Statement are further analysed in the document “Receipt Budget”.

What does it contain?

  • Details of tax and non-tax revenue receipts and capital receipts and explains the estimates.
  • Statement on the arrears of tax revenues and non-tax revenues, as mandated under the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Rules, 2004.
  • Trend of receipts and expenditure along with deficit indicators, statement pertaining to National Small Savings Fund (NSSF), Statement of Liabilities, Statement of Guarantees given by the government, statements of Assets and details of External Assistance
  • Shows liabilities of the Government on account of securities (bonds) issued in lieu of oil and fertilizer subsidies in the past. This was earlier called ‘Statement of Revenue Foregone’ and brought out as a separate statement in 2015-16. This has been merged in the Receipts Budget from 2016-17 onwards.
  1. Expenditure Profile
  2. i) This document was earlier titled Expenditure Budget – Vol-I. It gives an aggregation of various types of expenditure and certain other items across demands.
  3. ii) Under the present accounting and budgetary procedures, certain classes of receipts, such as payments made by one Department to another and receipts of capital projects or schemes, are taken in reduction of the expenditure of the receiving Department. While the estimates of expenditure included in the Demands for Grants are for the gross amounts, the estimates of expenditure included in the Annual Financial Statement are for the net expenditure, after taking into account the recoveries. The document, makes certain other refinements such as netting expenditure of related receipts so that overstatement of receipts and expenditure figures is avoided.

The document contains statements indicating major variations between previous two Budget Estimates (BE) and Revised Estimates (RE).

Contributions to International bodies and estimated strength of establishment of various Government Departments and provision thereof are shown in separate Statements.

A statement each, showing (i) Gender Budgeting and (ii) Schemes for Development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes including Scheduled Caste Sub Scheme (SCSS) and Tribal Sub Scheme (TSS) allocations and (iii) Schemes for the Welfare of Children are also included in this document.

It also has statements on (i) the expenditure details and budget estimates regarding Autonomous Bodies and (ii) the details of certain important funds in the Public Account.

iii) Scheme Expenditure

  • The Demands for Grants of the various Ministries show the Scheme expenditure under the two categories of Centrally Sponsored Schemes and Central Sector Schemes separately.
  • The Expenditure Profile also gives the total provisions for each of the Ministries arranged under the various categories- Centrally Sponsored Schemes, Central Sector Schemes, Establishment, Other Central Expenditure, Transfer to States etc.
  1. iv) Public Sector Enterprises
  • A detailed report on the working of public sector enterprises is given in the document titled ‘Public Enterprises Survey’ brought out separately by the Department of Public Enterprises.
  • A report on the working of the enterprises under the control of various administrative Ministries is also given in the Annual Reports of the various Ministries.
  1. v) Commercial Departments
  • Railways is the principal departmentally-run commercial undertaking of Government. The Budget of the Ministry of Railways and the Demands for Grants relating to Railway expenditure are presented to the Parliament together with the Union Budget from the financial year 2017-18 onwards.
  • The Expenditure Profile has a separate section on Railways to capture all the salient aspects of the demand for grants of Railways and other details. The total receipts and expenditure of the Railways are, incorporated in the Annual Financial Statement of the Government of India. Details of other commercially run departmental under takings are also shown in a statement.
  1. vi) The receipts and expenditure of the Ministry of Defence Demands shown in the Annual Financial Statement, are explained in greater detail in the document Defence Services Estimates presented with the Detailed Demands for Grants of the Ministry of Defence.

vii) The details of grants given to bodies other than State and Union Territory Governments are given in the statements of Grants-in-aid paid to non-Government bodies appended to Detailed Demands for Grants of the various Ministries.

  1. Budget at a Glance

This document shows:

  • In brief, receipts and disbursements along with broad details of tax revenues and other receipts.
  • provides details of resources transferred by the Central Government to State and Union Territory Governments.
  • Shows the revenue deficit, the gross primary deficit and the gross fiscal deficit of the Central Government.
  • Includes a statement indicating the quantum and nature (share in Central Taxes, grants/loan) of the total Resources transferred to States and UTs.
  1. I. Memorandum Explaining the Provisions in the Finance Bill
  • To facilitate understanding of the taxation proposals contained in the finance Bill, the provisions and their implications are explained in the document titled Memorandum Explaining the Provisions in the Finance Bill.
  1. Output Outcome Monitoring Framework
  • Outcome Budget with Output-Outcome Monitoring Framework (OOMF) for Central Sector Schemes (CSs) and Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSSs) with financial outlay of `500 crore and more each, will be laid in the House along with Budget 2020-2021.
  • With regard to CS and CSS schemes with outlay less than `500 crore each, the output-outcome monitoring framework with itemized expenditure of the schemes will be prepared by the respective Ministry/ Department and the same will be presented in the Parliament along with the Detailed Demand for Grants (DDG).
  1. Key Features of Budget 2020-21
  • The Document is a snapshot summary of the economic vision of the Government and the major policy initiatives in the thrust areas of the economy for growth and welfare.
  • Major milestones achieved in fiscal consolidation and management of the Government finances along with a bird’s eye view of the key budget proposals for the fiscal year 2020-2021 are also included in the document.

 

 

 

The collegium system of judges is mentioned in the original Constitution of India. True or False?

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Solution: False. The collegium system of judges finds no mention in the original Constitution of India.

Enrich Your Learning:

Selection procedure of Chief Justice of India:

  • The senior-most judge of the Supreme court is generally considered for holding the office of the Chief Justice of India.
  • When the incumbent CJI is about to retire, the Ministry of Law, Justice and Company affairs use to seek the recommendation of the CJI to appoint the next CJI.
  • After receiving the recommendation of the CJI, the Ministry of Law, Justice and Company affairs forward the issue to the Prime Minister who will further move the proposal to the President of India for the final approval.

The procedure of an appointment:

  • The Chief Justice of India (CJI) and the other judges of the highest judiciary are appointed by the President of India under the Article 124 (2) of the Constitution.

Role and composition of the collegium:

  • The collegium system was commissioned by two judgments of the Supreme Court in the 1990s.
  • It has no mention in the original Constitution of India or its successive amendments.
  • The Supreme Court collegium consists of the four senior-most judges and the Chief Justice.
  • The collegium of the five judges is responsible for a major role in the Indian judiciary which includes the appointment and transfer of the judges of the High Court and the appointment of the Supreme Court judges.
  • Article 222 of the Constitution provides for the transfer of a judge from one High Court to another.
  • The collegium sends its final recommendation to the President of India for approval.
  • The President can either accept it or reject it. In the case it is rejected, the recommendation comes back to the collegium.
  • If the collegium reiterates its recommendation to the President, then he/she is bound by that recommendation.

Three Judges case:

  • The Collegium system was evolved through Supreme Court judgments in the Three Judges Cases.
  • First Judges Case (1981): It ruled that the consultation with the CJI in the matter of appointments must be full and effective. However, it rejected the idea that the CJI’s opinion should have primacy.
  • Second Judges Case (1993): It introduced the Collegium system, holding that consultation really meant concurrence. It added that it was not the CJI’s individual opinion, but an institutional opinion formed in consultation with the two senior-most judges in the Supreme Court.
  • Third Judges Case (1998): Supreme court expanded the Collegium to a five-member body, comprising the CJI and four of his senior-most colleagues.

Criticism of collegium system:

  • The lack of transparency in collegium system has resulted in nepotism and elevation of judges based on personal relationships and past favours instead of merit or seniority.
  • The selection of CJI is made from very small group of candidates.
  • The most pronounced attempt at reforming the Collegium System was the National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC), which was passed by Parliament in 2014 as the 99th Constitutional Amendment Act.
  • However, it was struck down as unconstitutional by the Supreme court based on the infringement on judicial independence.

 

 

 

Where the Taiga forests found?

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Answer:

Taiga forests found in northern circumpolar forested regions which extends across Europe, North America, and Asia.

Enrich Your Learning:

Taiga forests

  • Taiga, also called boreal forest is a biome of vegetation composed primarily of cone-bearing needle-leaved or scale-leaved evergreen trees.
  • It is found in northern circumpolar forested regions characterized by long winters and moderate to high annual precipitation.
  • The taiga means “land of the little sticks” in Russian, takes its name from the collective term for the northern forests of Russia, especially Siberia.
  • It occupies about 17 percent of Earth’s land surface area in a circumpolar belt of the far Northern Hemisphere.
  • The taiga is characterized predominantly by a limited number of conifer species– pine (Pinus), spruce (Picea), larch (Larix), fir (Abies) and to a lesser degree by some deciduous genera– birch (Betula) and poplar (Populus).

Taiga Biome

  • The taiga biome is the largest terrestrial biome and extends across Europe, North America, and Asia.
  • It is located right below the tundra biome.
  • The taiga biome is also known as coniferous forest or boreal forest.
  • This biome typically has short, wet summers and long, cold winters.
  • Precipitation is moderate in the taiga. It gets plenty of snow during the winter and plenty of rainfall during the summer.
  • Fires are very common in the taiga biome.
  • There is not much variety in plants. Majority of the plants are conifer trees that is why coniferous forest.
  • The conifer trees in the taiga biome are referred to as evergreen.

 

 

 

Sohrai Khovar Painting is the painting art of which Indian State?

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Answer: Jharkhand

Enrich Your Learning:

Sohrai Khovar Painting:

  • Jharkhand’s Sohrai Khovar painting was given the GI tag by the Geographical Indications Registry headquartered in Chennai.
  • The Sohrai Khovar painting is atraditional and ritualistic mural art being practised by local tribal women during harvest and marriage seasons using naturally available soils of different colours in Jharkhand.
  • The painting is primarily being practised only in the district of Hazaribagh. However, in recent years, it has been seen in other parts of Jharkhand.
  • Traditionally painted on the walls of mud houses, they are now seen on other surfaces, too.
  • The style features a profusion of lines, dots, animal figures and plants, often representing religious iconography.

 

 

 

What do you understand by the term ‘Holography’?

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Answer:

Holography is a class of methods for recording and reconstructing three-dimensional images, which are based on interference phenomena.

Enrich Your Learning:

Holography

  • A hologram is a real world recording of an interference pattern which uses diffraction to reproduce a 3D light field, resulting in an image which still has the depth, parallax, and other properties of the original scene.
  • Holographic images are called holograms. Holography is the science and practice of making holograms.
  • A hologram is a photographic recording of a light field, rather than an image formed by a lens.
  • Unlike normal photographic images, they do not use a mapping of individual objects points to individual points in the hologram; in that sense, they are not images.
  • The holographic medium, for example the object produced by a holographic process (which may be referred to as a hologram) is usually unintelligible when viewed under diffuse ambient light.
  • It is an encoding of the light field as an interference pattern of variations in the opacity, density, or surface profile of the photographic medium.
  • When suitably lit, the interference pattern diffracts the light into an accurate reproduction of the original light field, and the objects that were in it exhibit visual depth cues such as parallax and perspective that change realistically with the different angles of viewing.
  • View of the image from different angles represents the subject viewed from similar angles.
  • In this sense, holograms do not have just the illusion of depth but are truly three-dimensional images.
  • Holography is distinct from lenticular and other earlier autostereoscopic 3D display technologies, which can produce superficially similar results but are based on conventional lens imaging.

Applications

  • Security holograms e.g. for passports, ID cards and credit cards, which are essentially used for making it substantially more difficult to produce convincing illegal copies, since the details of the required hologram are difficult to measure.
  • Despite the typical image imperfections, holograms can be attractive as pieces of art.
  • For research purposes, holographic images of tiny objects can be made not only with light, but also with coherent X-rays, as can be generated with free electron lasers.

Key Fact

  • The Nobel Prize 1971 in Physics was awarded to Dennis Gabor for his invention and development of holographic methods; his first demonstration was done in 1947.

 

 

 

International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) is aimed at?

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Answer:

IPPC is aimed to secure cooperation among nations in protecting global plant resources from the introduction and spread of plant pests, in order to preserve food security, biodiversity and facilitate trade.

Enrich Your Learning:

International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC)

  • The International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) is an intergovernmental treaty signed by over 180 countries.
  • The treaty is aimed to protect the world’s plant resources from the spread and introduction of pests, and to promote safe trade.
  • The Convention introduced International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPMs) as its main tool to achieve its goals, making it the sole global standard setting organization for plant health.
  • The IPPC is one of the “Three Sisters” recognized by the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Agreement, along with the Codex Alimentarius Commission for food safety standards and the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) for animal health standards.

Implementing the IPPC: Governing bodies and structure

  • The Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (CPM) is the IPPC main governing body, holding its sessions annually.
  • The CPM Bureau provides guidance to the IPPC Secretariat on activities, particularly those related to financial and operational management.
  • The Standards Committee (SC) is overseeing the IPPC standard setting process to develop international standards.
  • The Implementation and Capacity Development Committee (IC) provides technical guidance to enhance the capacity of contracting parties.
  • The Strategic Planning Group (SPG) undertakes specific activities on behalf of the CPM.
  • The IPPC Secretariat, established in 1992 and hosted at FAO headquarters in Rome.

 

 

 

Van allen radiation belts can be seen in which layer of Earth’s atmosphere?

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Answer:

Van allen radiation belts can be seen in exosphere (upper layer) of Thermosphere.

Enrich Your Learning:

Troposphere

  • The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth’s atmosphere and site of weather on Earth.
  • On the top of troposphere, a layer of air called the tropopause, which separates the troposphere from the stratosphere.
  • The troposphere is wider at the equator (10mi) than at the poles (5mi).
  • It contains 75% of atmosphere’s mass and 99% of the water vapor in the atmosphere.
  • They are greatest above the tropics and decrease toward the polar regions.
  • Most prevalent gases are nitrogen (78 percent) and oxygen (21 percent), with the remaining 1- percent consisting of argon, (0.9 percent) and traces of hydrogen ozone and other constituents.
  • It does not contain ozone.
  • Temperature and water vapor content in the troposphere decrease rapidly with altitude.
  • The temperature in the troposphere can reach -80o
  • The uneven heating of the regions of the troposphere by the sun causes convection currents, large-scale patterns of winds.

Mesosphere

  • The mesosphere extends from stratopause to 80–85 km.
  • Most meteoroids get burnt in this layer.
  • Temperature decreases with altitude in the mesosphere.
  • Mesopause is a thin layer of extremely cold atmosphere that separates the mesosphere from the Ionosphere above.
  • The mesopause that marks the top of the mesosphere, is the coldest place around Earth with an average temperature around −85 °C. The temperatures at that point may drop to −100 °C.
  • Due to the cold temperature ice clouds are formed as water vapour frizzes. These clouds are called Noctilucent clouds.
  • The noctilucent clouds are the highest clouds in the Earth’s atmosphere, located in the mesosphere at altitudes of around 76 to 85 kilometers.

Thermosphere

  • Thermosphere is above the Mesopause layer.
  • Temperature increases rapidly with increasing height.
  • It is divided into two layers:

Ionosphere

  • It extends from 80 km to 640 km. There are many ionic layers in this sphere.
  • D Layerreflects the signals of low frequency radio waves but absorbs the signals of medium and high frequency waves. This layer disappears with the sunset.
  • E layeralso known as Kennelly Heaviside layer, reflects the medium and high frequency radio waves back to the earth.
  • SPORADIC E layeris associated with high velocity winds. This layer reflects very high frequency radio waves.
  • E2layer is produced due to reaction of ultra-violet solar photons with oxygen molecules and this layer also disappear during night.
  • F layersconsists of two sub layers F1 and F2 layers, collectively they are called ‘Appleton layer’. This layer reflect medium and high frequency radio waves back to the earth.
  • G layermost probably persists day and night but is not detectable.

Exosphere

  • It represents the uppermost layer of the atmosphere.
  • The density becomes extremely low and the atmosphere resembles a nebula because it is highly rarefied.
  • The temperature becomes 15000c at its outer limit.
  • The atmosphere above ionosphere is called outer atmosphere having exosphere and magnetosphere.
  • This zone is characterized by van allen radiation belts having charged particles trapped by earth’s magnetic field, aurora australis and aurora borealis.
  • Aurora are cosmic glowing lights produced by a stream of electron discharged from the sun’s surface due to magnetic storm.
  • Auroras are seen as unique multicolored fireworks hanging in the polar sky during mid night.

 

 

 

What do you know about the Chaolung Sukapha which was one of the ruler in 13th-century?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Chaolung Sukapha:

  • Sukapha was a 13th-century ruler who founded the Ahom kingdomthat ruled Assam for six centuries. Contemporary scholars trace his roots to Burma.
  • Sukapha was a leader of the Ahoms. He reached Brahmaputra valley in Assamfrom upper Burma in the 13th century with around 9,000 followers.
  • In 1235 CE, Sukapha and his people settled in Charaideo in upper Assam where heestablished his first small principality, and expanded the Ahom kingdom.

Socio-religious practices:

  • The founders of the Ahom kingdom had their own language and followed their own religion. Over the centuries, they accepted the Hindu religionand the Assamese language.
  • They did not imposetheir tradition and culture on those living here.
  • Sukapha developed very amiable relationships with the tribal communitiesliving here and Intermarriage also increased assimilation processes.

Why is Sukapha important?

  • Sukapha’s significance — especially in today’s Assam — lies in his successful efforts towards assimilation of different communities and tribes.
  • He is widely referred to as the architect of Bor Asom or greater Assam.
  • To commemorate Sukapha and his rule, Assam celebrates Asom Divas on December 2 every year.

 

 

 

In context of Interference of light, what is Destructive interference?

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Answer:

Destructive interference

  • Destructive interference occurs at any location along the medium where the two interfering waves have a displacement in the opposite direction.
  • The interference of a crest with a trough is an example of destructive interference.

Enrich Your Learning:

Interference of light

  • An important characteristic of light waves is their ability, under certain circumstances, to interfere with one another.
  • Wave interference is a phenomenon that occurs when two waves meet while traveling along the same medium.
  • The interference of waves causes the medium to take on a shape that results from the net effect of the two individual waves upon the particles of the medium.
  • Thomas Young was 19th century physicist who demonstrated interference showing that light is a wave phenomenon and who also postulated that different colors of light were made from waves with different lengths.
  • Wave interference can be constructive or destructive in nature.
  • Interference is demonstrated by the light reflected from a film of oil floating on water.
  • Another example is the soap bubble that reflects a variety of beautiful colors when illuminated by a light source.
  • Spectacular example of naturally occurring interference, the Morpho didius butterfly thrives in the Amazon rain forest and exhibits one of the most beautiful forms of iridescence seen in the insect world.

Constructive interference

  • Constructive interference occurs at any location along the medium where the two interfering waves have a displacement in the same direction.
  • If at a given instant in time and location along the medium, the crest of one wave meets the crest of a second wave, they will interfere in such a manner as to produce a “super-crest.”
  • Similarly, the interference of a trough and a trough interfere constructively to produce a “super-trough.”

 

 

 

What do you mean by the term ‘Agro ecology’?

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Answer:

Agro ecology has been identified as an integration of science, practices and social processes.

Enrich Your Learning:

Agro ecology

  • Agro ecology is based on applying ecological concepts and principles to optimize interactions between plants, animals, humans and the environment.
  • Agro ecology is farming that centers on food production that makes the best use of nature’s goods and services while not damaging these resources.
  • It takes into consideration the social aspects that need to be addressed for a sustainable and fair food system.
  • Agro ecology is based on context-specific design and organization, of crops, livestock, farms and landscapes.
  • It works with solutions that conserve above and below ground biodiversity as well as cultural and knowledge diversity with a focus on women’s and youth’s role in agriculture.
  • Agro ecology is the basis for evolving food systems that are equally strong in environmental, economic, social and agronomic dimensions.
  • To harness the multiple sustainability benefits that arise from agro ecological approaches, an enabling environment is required, including adapted policies, public investments, institutions and research priorities.

Significance

  • It can support food production and food security and nutrition while restoring the ecosystem services and biodiversity that are essential for sustainable agriculture.
  • Agro ecology can play an important role in building resilience and adapting to climate change.

 

 

 

India’s ‘Natural rate of population’ in year 2018 was higher than in 2010. Do you agree?

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Solution: No

Correct Statement:

  • Rate of natural increase of India fell gradually from 21.74 persons per thousand populations in 1969 to 10.62 persons per thousand populations in 2018.

Enrich Your Learning:

Natural rate of population increase

  • The rate of natural increase refers to the difference between the number of live births and the number of deaths occurring in a year, divided by the mid-year population of that year, multiplied by a factor (usually 1,000).
  • It is equal to the difference between the crude birth rate and the crude death rate. This measure of the population change excludes the effects of migration.

Natural rate of population increase in India

  • In 2018, rate of natural increase for India was 10.62 persons per thousand populations.
  • Rate of natural increase of India fell gradually from 21.74 persons per thousand populations in 1969 to 10.62 persons per thousand populations in 2018.

 

 

 

Doubts and disputes in connection with the election of a President or Vice – President shall be settled by a) Election Commission or b) Supreme Court?

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Solution: Supreme Court

Enrich Your Learning:

Article 71 of Indian Constitution:

  • It deals with matters relating to, or connected with, the election of a President or Vice-President.

The Article deals with:

  1. All doubts and disputes arising out of or in connection with the election of a President or Vice – President shall be inquired into and decided by the Supreme Court whose decision shall be final.
  2. If the election of a person as President or Vice – President is declared void by the Supreme Court, acts done by him in the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of the office of President or Vice-President, as the case may be, on or before the date of the decision of the Supreme Court shall not be invalidated by reason of that declaration.
  3. Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, Parliament may by law regulate any matter relating to or connected with the election of a President or Vice-President.
  4. The election of a person as President or Vice-President shall not be called in question on the ground of the existence of any vacancy for whatever reason among the members of the electoral college electing him.

 

 

 

Yanadi tribe and Betta Kurumba tribe are from which Indian state/s?

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Answer:

Yanadis are one of the major schedule tribe of Andhra Pradesh and Betta Kurumba tribe is found in regions of Karnataka.

Enrich Your Learning:

Yanadi tribe

  • Yanadis are one of the major schedule tribe of Andhra Pradesh located in Southern India.
  • The Yanadi is a nomadic tribe.
  • There are mainly four kinds in the Yanadi tribe. There are Reddy Yanadi, Challa Yanadi, KappalaYanadis and Adaviyanadis.
    • The Reddy Yanadis were employed as their trackers and hunters.
    • Challa Yanadis were doing low grade jobs, as scavengers and were give challa (buttermilk) as payment.
    • Kappala Yanadis are mostly fisher men.
    • Adavi Yanadis are those who live in forests even now far away from human habitation
  • Majority of the Yanadis follow Hindu religion.
  • Yanadis follow the custom of magic. Yanadis irrationally follow and believe these black magic techniques and outcomes.

Betta Kurumba tribe

  • The Betta Kuruba tribe lives in the hilly regions of Karnataka, and is one of the few indigenous communities of the Nilgiris.
  • Traditionally, the Kuruba people drew sustenance from hunting, gathering and collecting wild honey.
  • They are also cultivating millets like ragi and samai on a small scale mainly on hill slopes and mountain ridges.
  • The Kurumba houses known as “Gudlu” are temporary constructions in the forests.
  • Now, they are mainly engaged in agriculture and those who do not own lands work as casual agricultural labourers.
  • The Kurumbas are hardworking people, but the economic condition of the Kurumbas is very poor.
  • They have not been notified as a Scheduled Tribe.

 

 

 

 

Which Tirthankara of Jainism was the earliest exponent of Karma philosophy in recorded history?

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Answer: Parshvanatha

Enrich Your Learning:

Parshvanatha:

  • Parshvanatha was the 23rd Tirthankara, according to Jainism.
  • Parshvanatha was the first Tirthankara for whom there is historical evidence, but this evidence is intricately interwoven with legend.
  • Parshvanatha established the “fourfold restraint,” the four vows taken by his followers (not to take life, steal, lie, or own property) that, with Mahavira’s addition of the vow of celibacy, became the five “great vows” (mahavratas) of Jain ascetics.
  • While Parshvanatha allowed monks to wear an upper and lower garment, Mahavira gave up on clothing altogether.
  • According to tradition, the two sets of views were reconciled by a disciple of each of the Tirthankaras, with the followers of Parshvanatha accepting Mahavira’s reforms.
  • The legends surrounding Parshvanatha emphasize his association with serpents.
  • Parshvanatha attained moksha on Mount Sammeta (Madhuban, Jharkhand) in the Ganges basin

 

 

 

As per the recent guidelines of RBI, what is the criteria for Primary (Urban) Co-operative Bank if it wants to become a Small Finance Bank (SFB)?

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Solution:

  • Primary (Urban) Co-operative Banks (UCBs), desirous of voluntarily transiting into SFBs initial requirement of net worth shall be at Rs 100 crore, which will have to be increased to Rs 200 crore within five years from the date of commencement of business.

Enrich Your Learning:

Why in news?

  • In December 2019, RBI issued revised guidelines for ‘on tab’ licensing of small finance banks (SFB).
    • An ‘on-tap’ facility mean the RBI will accept applications and grant license for banks throughout the year.

Guiltiness for ‘on tab’ licensing of SFBs

  • Primary (Urban) Co-operative Banks (UCBs), desirous of voluntarily transiting into SFBs initial requirement of net worth shall be at Rs 100 crore, which will have to be increased to Rs 200 crore within five years from the date of commencement of business.
  • Small finance banks will be given scheduled bank status immediately upon commencement of operations.
  • Payments banks can apply for conversion after five years of operations if they are eligible as per revised guidelines.
    • The promoter of a payments bank is eligible to set up an SFB, provided that both banks come under the non-operating financial holding company (NOFHC) structure (on-deposit taking NBFC).

Small Finance Banks (SFBs)

  • Small finance banks are a type of niche banks in India.
  • It primarily undertakes basic banking activities of acceptance of deposits and lending to unserved and underserved sections such as small business units, small farmers, Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) and various other unorganised sectors.
  • RBI issued guidelines for setting up SFBs in 2014.
  • The minimum paid-up equity capital for small finance banks is Rs. 100 crores.

 

 

 

Gram Panchayat Development Plan is formulated a) annually or b) five years?

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Solution: GPDP is an annual plan of each panchayat where the villagers would decide where the money should be spent.

Enrich Your Learning:

Gram Panchayat Development Plan (GPDP):

  • In 2015, the Fourteenth Finance Commission grants were devolved to Gram Panchayats that provided them with an enormous opportunity to plan for their development themselves.
  • GPDP is an annual plan of each panchayat where the villagers would decide where the money should be spent.
  • Since then, local bodies, across the country are expected to prepare Gram Panchayat Development Plans.

Details:

  • GPDP planning process has to be based on full convergence with Schemes of all related Central Ministries / Line Departments related to 29 subjects enlisted in the Eleventh Schedule of the Constitution.
  • GPDP campaign will be an intensive and structured exercise for planning at Gram Sabha level through convergence between Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) and concerned Line Departments of the State.
  • GPDP is conducted from 2nd October to 31st December, every year across the country, under the People’s Plan Campaign (PPC).
  • Ministry of Panchayati Raj and Ministry of Rural Development, has mandated Self Help Groups under Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM) to participate in the annual GPDP planning process and prepare the Village Poverty Reduction Plan (VPRP).

Village Poverty Reduction Plan (VPRP):

  • VPRP is a comprehensive demand plan prepared by the Self Help Group (SHG) network and their federations for projecting their demands and local area development which needs to be integrated with the Gram Panchayat Development Plan (GPDP).
  • The VPRP is presented in the Gram Sabha meetings from Oct. to Dec. every year.
  • It is an integral component of the convergence effort between the DAY-NRLM and Panchayati Raj Institutions.

Key fact:

  • Article 243G of the Constitution intended to empower the Gram Panchayats (GPs) by enabling the State Governments to devolve powers and authority in respect of all 29 Subjects listed in the Eleventh Schedule for local planning and implementation of schemes for economic development and social justice.

 

 

 

Pookode Lake and Vellayani Lake are located in which Indian state?

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Answer:

Pookode Lake and Vellayani Lake are located in Kerala state on India.

Enrich Your Learning:

Pookode Lake

  • Pookode Lake in Wayanad is a natural freshwater lake at an altitude of 770 meters above sea level near Kalpetta, Kerala.
  • The perennial freshwater lake has the shape of an Indian map.
  • It is nestled between evergreen forests and surrounded by the Western Ghats.
  • It is the highest altitude freshwater lake in Kerala, it is the smallest too.
  • Pookode Lake is also the point of origination for Panamaram River, that flows through the valley to join Kabini River.
  • Blue lotus and numerous fresh water fishes can be sited in the lake.

Vellayani Lake

  • Locally known as Vellayani Kayal, is the largest freshwater lake in Kerala, situated in the Trivandrum city.
  • The water from the lake is mostly used for irrigation and drinking purposes and for harvesting lotus flowers.
  • Till 1953, it was used only to grow lotus flowers for the Sri Padmanabha Swamy temple.
  • It is a common practice to dewater the lake twice annually for paddy cultivation by the farmers.

 

 

 

Tiger faced dance is the folk dance of which Indian state?

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Answer: Karnataka

Enrich Your Learning:

Huli Vesha or Pili Yesais or Tiger faced dance:

  • Huli Vesha or Pili Yesais a folk dance famous in coastal Karnataka
  • It is performed during Navratri to honour the Goddess Durga whose favoured animal is the tiger.
  • Huli Vesha is performed by local youth.
  • While Pili means “tiger” in Tulu, dancers also painted themselves with leopard or cheetah motifs. 

 

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