Prelims 2020

Prelims Booster 2020 Flash Cards Set-5 [Static]

This is Prelims Booster 2020 Flash Cards Set-5 [Static].
By IASToppers
September 22, 2020

 

 

 

Which country has become the first country to declare a ‘climate emergency’?

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Answer:

The UK became the first national government to declare a climate emergency in May 2019.

Enrich Your Learning:

Climate emergency

  • A situation in which urgent action is required to reduce or halt climate change and avoid potentially irreversible environmental damage resulting from it.
  • “Climate emergency” was chosen by the Oxford Dictionary as the word of the Year 2019.

Climate Emergency Declaration

  • A Declaration of Climate Emergency is a piece of legislation passed by a governing body such as a city council, a county board of supervisors, a state legislature, or even a national government.
  • It puts the government on record in support of taking emergency action to reverse global warming. Resolutions vary around the world, with many governments including local climate impacts and new climate targets in their resolution.
  • This climate-change-related term is generally used by governments, scientists and climate activists to underline the catastrophic consequences of the changes in climate for humans.
  • Though a climate emergency declaration doesn’t represent any formal or standard path to be followed, it admits the measures and actions taken so far to fight climate change haven’t been enough and represents a formal commitment to set priorities to mitigate climate change.

Key Fact

  • In May 2019, the UK became the first national government to declare a climate emergency, days after similar declarations from Scotland and Wales.
  • New York City became the world’s largest city to declare climate emergency in June, 2019.

 

 

 

What is the significance of Farmers Producer Organization (FPO) for farmers?

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Solution:

Farmers get better bargaining power, benefit of economies of scale and better access to technology, input, finance and market.

Enrich Your Learning:

Farmer Producer Organisations (FPOs)

  • The Farmers Producer Organization (FPO) is one type of Producer Organization where the members are farmers.
  • A Producer Organization (PO) is a legal entity formed by primary producers, viz. farmers, milk producers, fishermen, weavers, rural artisans, craftsmen.
  • The ownership of the FPO is with its memberse. farmers.
  • A PO can be a producer company, a cooperative society or any other legal form which provides for sharing of profits/benefits among the members.
  • The main aim of PO is to ensure better income for the producers through an organization of their own. Therefore, an FPO is also tries to increase the income of farmers.
  • Through aggregation, the primary producers can avail the benefit of economies of scale. They will also have better bargaining power vis-à-vis the bulk buyers of produce and bulk suppliers of inputs.
  • FPOs help in collectivization of such small, marginal and landless farmers in order to give them the collective strength to deal with such issues.
  • Members of the FPO manage their activities together in the organization to get better access to technology, input, finance and market for faster enhancement of their income.

 

 

 

Which time period is dubbed as the dubbed the Age of Fishes? a) Silurian period or b) Devonian period

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Solution: Devonian period

Enrich Your Learning:

Devonian:

  • The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic era.
  • It spanned 60 million years from the end of the Silurian period, 419.2 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous period (358.9 Mya).
  • It is named after Devon, England where rocks from this period were first studied.

Events:

  • The first significant adaptive radiation of life on dry land occurred during the Devonian.
  • Free-sporing vascular plants began to spread across dry land, forming extensive forests which covered the continents.
  • By the middle of the Devonian, several groups of plants had evolved leaves and true roots.
  • By the end of the period the first seed-bearing plants appeared.
  • Fish reached substantial diversity during this time leading Devonian to often be dubbed the Age of Fishes.
  • The placoderms (a class of armoured prehistoric fish began dominating) almost every known aquatic environment.
  • The ancestors of all four-limbed vertebrates (tetrapods) began adapting to walking on land, as their strong pectoral and pelvic fins gradually evolved into legs.
  • In the oceans, primitive sharks became more numerous than in the Silurian and Late Ordovician.

 

 

 

Who creates the ministries/departments of the government of India?

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Solution:

The President on the advice of the Prime Minister.

Enrich Your Learning:

Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules, 1961

  • The Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules, 1961 are made by the President of India under Article 77 of the Constitution for the allocation of business of the Government of India.
  • The Ministries/Departments of the Government are created by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister under these Rules.
  • The business of the Government are transacted in the Ministries/Departments, Secretariats and offices (referred to as ‘Department’) as per the distribution of subjects specified in these Rules.
  • Each of the Ministries is assigned to a Minister by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister.
  • Each department is generally under the charge of a Secretary to assist the Minister on policy matters and general administration.
  • The Cabinet Secretariat is responsible for the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules 1961.
  • The subjects allotted to this Secretariat are:

(i) Secretarial assistance to Cabinet and Cabinet Committees; and

(ii) Rules of Business

 

 

 

What are the types of Carbon nanotubes?

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Answer:

Types of nanotubes: Single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs)

Enrich Your Learning:

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)

  • Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an allotrope of carbon.
  • Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cylindrical molecules that consist of rolled-up sheets of single-layer carbon atoms (graphene).
  • They can be single-walled with a diameter of less than 1 nanometer (nm) or multi-walled (MWCNT), consisting of several concentrically interlinked nanotubes.
  • They possess diameters reaching more than 100 nm. Their length can reach several micrometers or even millimeters.
  • They have novel properties that make them potentially useful in a wide variety of applications in nanotechnology, electronics, optics and other fields of materials science.
  • They exhibit extraordinary strength and unique electrical properties and are efficient conductors of heat.
  • Nanotubes are members of the fullerene structural family, which also includes buckyballs.

Properties

  • High thermal conductivity
  • High electrical conductivity
  • Aspect ratio
  • Very elastic ~18% elongation to failure
  • Very high tensile strength
  • Highly flexible — can be bent considerably without damage
  • A low thermal expansion coefficient
  • Good electron field emitters

 

 

 

Enlist the name of all seven species of sea (or marine) turtles.

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Answer:

Green, Hawksbill, Loggerhead, Leatherback, Olive Ridley, Kemp’s Ridley and Flatback Turtles are species of sea (or marine) turtles.

Enrich Your Learning:

Species of sea (or marine) turtles

  • Seven different species of sea (or marine) turtles grace ocean waters, from the shallow seagrass beds of the Indian Ocean, to the colourful reefs of the Coral Triangle and the sandy beaches of the Eastern Pacific.
  • Sea turtles spend the bulk of their lives in the ocean, these highly migratory species periodically come ashore to either bask or nest.
  • All 7 species of marine turtles are listed on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
  • 3 are classified as critically endangered by IUCN and a further 3 are classified as endangered.
  1. Leatherback Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea)
  • The leatherback turtle is the largest sea turtle. These gigantic reptiles can reach lengths of over 6 feet and weights of over 2,000 pounds.
  • Their shell consists of a single piece with five ridges, their skin is dark and is covered with white or pink spots.
  • They are deep divers, dive to over 3,000 feet. This species nests on tropical beaches, but can migrate as far north as Canada during the rest of the year.
  • The majority of loggerhead nesting is concentrated in two main areas of the world — at Masirah Island, Oman and on the coast of the southeastern United States.
  1. Green Turtle (Chelonia Mydas)
  • The green turtle is large, with a carapace of up to 3 feet long.
  • Their carapace can include shades of black, gray, green, brown, or yellow. Scutes may contain a beautiful pigmentation that looks like a sun’s rays.
  • Adult green turtles are the only herbivorous sea turtles. When young, they are carnivorous, but as adults, they eat seaweeds and seagrass. This diet gives their fat a green tinge.
  • Green turtles live in tropical and subtropical waters around the world.
  1. Loggerhead Turtles (Caretta Caretta)
  • Loggerhead turtles are a reddish-brown turtle with a very large head.
  • They are the most common turtle that nests in Florida. Loggerhead turtles can be 3.5 feet long.
  • Loggerheads live in temperate and tropical waters throughout the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans.
  1. Hawksbill Turtle (Eretmochelys Imbricate)
  • Hawksbill turtles were named for the shape of their beak, which looks similar to the beak of a raptor.
  • These turtles have a beautiful tortoiseshell pattern on their carapace and have been hunted nearly to extinction for their shells.
  • They feed on sponges and have an amazing ability to digest the needle-like skeleton of these animals.
  • They live in tropical and subtropical waters in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. They can be found among reefs, rocky areas, mangrove swamps, lagoons, and estuaries.
  1. Kemp’s Ridley Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii)
  • At 30 inches long and weighing up to 100 pounds, the Kemp’s ridley is the smallest sea turtle.
  • This species is named after Richard Kemp, the fisherman who first described them in 1906.
  • They are coastal turtles and found in temperate to subtropical waters in the western Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico.
  • Kemp’s ridleys are most often found in habitats with sandy or muddy bottoms, where it is easy to find prey. They are famous for nesting in huge groups called ‘arribadas’.
  1. Olive Ridley Turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea)
  • Olive ridley turtles are named for their olive-colored shell. They are small and weigh less than 100 pounds.
  • They are found in tropical regions around the world.
  • During nesting, olive ridley females come to shore in colonies of up to a thousand turtles, with mass nesting aggregations called ‘arribadas’. These occur on the coasts of Central America and India.
  1. Flatback Turtles (Natator Depressus)
  • They are named for their flattened carapace, which is olive-gray in color. This is the only sea turtle species not found in the United States.
  • They are found only in the coastal waters of Australia.

 

 

 

What are the difference between IPv4 and IPv6 addresses?

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Answer:

IPv4 & IPv6 are both IP addresses that are binary numbers. IPv4 is 32-bit binary number while IPv6 is 128-bit binary number address.

IPv4 address are separated by periods while IPv6 address are separated by colons.

Both are used to identify machines connected to a network. In principle, they are the same, but they are different in how they work.

Enrich Your Learning:

IP address

  • An Internet Protocol address is also known as IP address.
  • It is a numerical label which assigned to each device connected to a computer network which uses the IP for communication.
  • IP address act as an identifier for a specific machine on a particular network.
  • The IP address is also called IP number and internet address. IP address specifies the technical format of the addressing and packets scheme.
  • Most networks combine IP with a TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). It also allows developing a virtual connection between a destination and a source.

What is IPv4?

  • IPv4 was the first version of IP. It was deployed for production in the ARPANET in 1983.
  • Today it is most widely used IP version. It is used to identify devices on a network using an addressing system.
  • The IPv4 uses a 32-bit address scheme allowing to store 2^32 addresses which is more than 4 billion addresses.
  • Till date, it is considered the primary Internet Protocol and carries 94% of Internet traffic.

What is IPv6?

  • It is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol. Internet Engineer Taskforce initiated it in early 1994.
  • The design and development of that suite is now called IPv6.
  • This new IP address version is being deployed to fulfil the need for more Internet addresses. It was aimed to resolve issues which are associated with IPv4.
  • With 128-bit address space, it allows 340 undecillion unique address space.
  • IPv6 also called IPng (Internet Protocol next generation).

 

 

 

‘Natura 2000’ is related to what?

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Answer:

Natura 2000 is a network of core breeding and resting sites for rare and threatened species, and some rare natural habitat types which are protected in their own right.

Enrich Your Learning:

Natura 2000

  • Natura 2000 stretches across all 27 EU countries, both on land and at sea.
  • The Natura 2000 Viewer is an online tool that presents all Natura 2000 sites.
  • It provides key information on designated species and habitats, data on population sizes and information on conservation status.
  • The viewer can be used for general purposes of for more specific searches.
  • Natura 2000 is not a system of strict nature reserves from which all human activities would be excluded. While it includes strictly protected nature reserves, most of the land remains privately owned.
  • The approach to conservation and sustainable use of the Natura 2000 areas is much wider, largely centered on people working with nature rather than against it.
  • Member States must ensure that the sites are managed in a sustainable manner, both ecologically and economically.

Aim

  • To ensure the long-term survival of Europe’s most valuable and threatened species and habitats, listed under both the Birds Directive and the Habitats Directive.

Natura 2000 Award

  • The Natura 2000 Award is designed to reward excellence in the management of Natura 2000 sites and showcase the added value of the network for local economies.
  • It pays tribute to all those who work tirelessly to make Natura 2000 a success whilst drawing public attention to its substantial achievements.

 

 

 

Convalescent plasma therapy can be categorised as passive antibody therapy or active antibody therapy?

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Answer:

Convalescent plasma therapy can be categorised as passive antibody therapy as it provides antibodies from outside to a person with infection to fight a virus.

Enrich Your Learning:

Convalescent plasma therapy

  • Convalescent plasma therapy involves transfusing certain components from the blood of people who have had virus infection and recovered into people who are very sick with the same virus or people who are at high risk of getting the virus.
  • Convalescent plasma is also known as passive antibody therapy, meaning that while it can immediately provide a person with antibodies to fight a virus, those antibodies only last a short period of time in the recipient’s body.

Mechanism

  • As people fight the COVID-19 virus, they produce antibodies that attack the virus. Those antibodies, proteins that are secreted by immune cells known as B lymphocytes, are found in plasma that helps the blood to clot when needed and supports immunity.
  • Once a person has had the virus and recovered, that person has developed antibodies that will stay in their blood waiting to fight the same virus should it return.
  • Those antibodies, when injected into another person with the disease, recognize the virus as something to attack.
  • In the case of the coronavirus, antibodies attack the spikes on the outside of the virus, blocking the virus from penetrating human cells.
  • One person’s donation of plasma can produce two doses of the material needed for transfusions. A person only needs one transfusion to get enough antibodies to fight a virus.

Convalescent plasma therapy carries the risk of:

  • Allergic reactions
  • Lung damage and difficulty breathing
  • Transmission of infections, including HIV and hepatitis B and C

 

 

 

In context of society, what are the examples of political forms of Class conflict?

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Solution:

The lobbying (legal and illegal) and bribery of legislators

Enrich Your Learning:

Class conflict

  • Class conflict is also referred to as class struggle and class warfare.
  • It is the political tension and economic antagonism that exists in society consequent to socio-economic competition among the social classes or between rich and poor.
  • The forms of class conflict include direct violence, such as wars for resources and cheap labor, assassinations or revolution; indirect violence, such as deaths from poverty and starvation, illness and unsafe working conditions.
  • Economic coercion, such as the threat of unemployment or the withdrawal of investment capital; or ideologically, by way of political literature.
  • The political forms of class warfare are: legal and illegal lobbying, and bribery of legislators.
  • The social-class conflict can be direct as well as indirect.
    • Direct – such as dispute between labour and management
    • Indirect – such as workers’ slowdown of production in protest of unfair labor practices.
  • In the political and economic philosophies of Karl Marx and Mikhail Bakunin, class struggle is a central tenet and a practical means for effecting radical social and political changes for the social majority.

 

 

 

What do you understand by the term ‘mirage’? Where it can be commonly observed?

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Answer:

A mirage is an optical phenomenon that creates the illusion of water and results from the refraction of light through a non-uniform medium.

Mirages are most commonly observed on sunny days when driving down a roadway.

Enrich Your Learning:

Mirage

  • When the surface of the earth is hot, the layer of air just touching the surface of the earth would be close to the temperature of the surface. The temperature of the layers of air keep reducing as the distance between the layers and the surface of the earth increases.
  • The higher the temperature of air, the lower its density.
  • Hence, the density of air keeps reducing as we move higher up from the surface of the earth. When the density of air is lesser, its refractive index is also lesser.
  • Consider a ray of light from the sun along a straight line from the sun to a point at some distance in front of us, when the sun is in front of us.
  • If the density of air is uniform, the ray of light would travel along a straight line and touch the surface of earth at that point.
  • However, when the ray of light comes close to the surface of the earth, it finds that the density of air starts reducing as it is at a higher temperature. Hence the ray of light gets refracted. As it is passing from a denser medium to a rarer medium and it moves away from the normal.
  • Moving away from the normal means coming closer. Thus this ray of light strikes the ground at a point closer to us as compared to the straight line path.
  • If the angle of incidence of the ray of light is sufficiently low and it becomes greater than the critical angle, it undergoes total internal refraction.
  • Then, the ray of light, instead of striking the ground starts moving in the upward direction and enters our eyes.
  • However, our brain tends to believe that this ray of light has travelled along a straight line path and extrapolates the path of the ray along a straight line and thus thinks that it has come from a point on the land some distance away from us.
  • Since the colour of the sky, as perceived by us, is blue, we then tend to believe that there is something bluish on the land some distance away.
  • The layers of air of different density are not static and hence the path of the rays undergoing total internal reflection vary with time.
  • Hence we tend to believe that, along the line of sight, the point from where the bluish light is coming is moving.
  • Considering all this, our brain concludes that there is a body of water some distance away. This is the mirage.

 

 

 

Which clauses have been used by the government to declare Eco-Sensitive Zones (ESZs) or Ecologically Fragile Areas (EFAs)?

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Answer:

Section 3(2)(v) and Rule 5(1) of the Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986 have been used by the government to declare Eco-Sensitive Zones (ESZs) or Ecologically Fragile Areas (EFAs).

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Eco-Sensitive Zone Statutory Backing

  • The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 does not mention the word “Eco-Sensitive Zones”.
  • Section 3(2)(v) of the Act, says that Central Government can restrict areas in which any industries, operations or processes or class of industries, operations or processes shall not be carried out or shall be carried out subject to certain safeguards.
  • Rule 5(1) of the Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986 states that central government can prohibit or restrict the location of industries and carrying on certain operations or processes on the basis of considerations like the biological diversity of an area, maximum allowable limits of concentration of pollutants for an area, environmentally compatible land use, and proximity to protected areas.
  • A committee constituted by MoEF puts guidelines laying down parameters and criteria for declaring ESZs. The guidelines lay out the criteria based on which areas can be declared as ESZs.
  • These include Species Based (Endemism, Rarity etc.), Ecosystem Based (sacred groves, frontier forests etc.) and Geo-morphologic feature based (uninhabited islands, origins of rivers etc.).
  • The same criteria have been used by the government to declare No Development Zones.

 

 

 

In context of economics, what’s the underlying meaning of ‘Debt for nature swaps’?

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Solution:

  • Debt for nature swaps are financial transactions in which a portion of a developing nation’s foreign debt is forgiven in exchange for local investments in environmental conservation measures.

Enrich Your Learning:

Debt for nature swaps

  • Debt for nature swaps are financial transactions in which a portion of a developing nation’s foreign debt is forgiven in exchange for local investments in environmental conservation measures.

How it works?

  • Debt for nature swaps is a voluntary transaction whereby the donor(s) cancels the debt owned by a developing country’s government.
  • In exchange for debt forgiveness, the debtor-government commits to invest the accrued savings in conservation and/or climate-related expenditures.
  • The proceeds from DNS are often allocated to local environmental trust funds, which disburse grants to conservation projects or directly fund parks and protected areas systems.
  • Swap agreements can be categorized by the creditor, i.e. public/bilateral swaps and private/commercial swaps.
    • A bilateral-DNS is negotiated between the creditor and debtor government in exchange for conservation activities in the debtor country.
    • A commercial-DNS involves a commercial creditor and a third-party donor but can also include official creditors, making deals of a hybrid type.

Pros and Cons Disadvantages of Debt for nature swaps

Pros  

  • Debtor-country reduces its debt obligations—including payments in foreign currencies—and frees up resources for environmental spending.
  • Creditors can increase the value of their remaining debt and improve their environmental credentials.
  • DNS can leverage funds for conservation. They can be used as co-financing or matching funds for larger conservation endeavors.
  • A long-term funding mechanism for conservation, DNS stimulate the creation of environmental trust funds that dispense proceeds over a long period of time.
  • Can promote participation by civil society, particularly when local NGOs or environmental trust funds are among the beneficiaries.

Cons

  • DNS have only resulted in relatively small amounts of debt relief, limiting their impact in reducing developing countries’ debt burden;
  • Transaction costs might be high compared to other financing instruments; negotiations can be time-consuming, spanning several years.

 

 

 

The ‘internal disturbance’ in a state should only be ‘man made’ which allows the state government to request armed forces help from union government. Is this True or False?

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Solution:

False, as the ‘internal disturbance’ could be man-made as well as nature-made for which help of armed forces could be asked.

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CONSTITUTIONAL JURISDICTIONS OF UNION AND STATES

  • A State Government has the sole responsibility for maintaining public order except where the use of the armed forces of the Union is called for (Entry 1 of List II).
  • The State Government may request the Union Government to make available Union armed forces to help restore public order. Even where the public disorder is not so serious as to fall in the category of an “internal disturbance” as contemplated in Article 355 of the Constitution, the Union Government may accede to the request.
  • An “internal disturbance”, however, is far more serious than “public disorder” and differs from it in degree as well as kind. The former has the characteristics of domestic chaos and inter alia endangers the security of the State. It may be man-made (e.g. a wide-spread and violent agitation or a communal flare-up) or Nature-made (e.g. a natural calamity that paralyses administration in a large area of a State).
  • Article 355 imposes a duty on the Union Government to protect a State against such an internal disturbance.
  • Not only an armed force of the Union but also a force which is not an armed force (e.g., a force of technical experts), and which is subject to the control of the Union, may be deployed in a State in aid of the civil power.
  • Another type of situation wherein the Union Government may deploy its armed forces, even suo motu, would be when Union property (e.g. installations, factories, office buildings etc.) situated in a State needs special protection which the State Governments not able to provide.
  • Such subjects could be Railways, Ports, Airways and Posts and Telegraphs.
  • When Union armed forces are deployed in a State, the State authorities concerned have to act in concert with the forces. it is implied in Article 355 that the Union Government has the overriding power to ensure such coordination.
  • If a State Government withhold their cooperation, the Union Government is empowered to issue a formal direction under Article 257 or even Article 355.
  • Failure to comply with such a direction may attract the sanction of Article 365 and action under Article 356 to proclaim President’s rule.

Examples

  • The Union Government deployed the Central Reserve Police Force suo motu only on three occasions, viz. once in Kerala in September, 1968 for the protection of Union Government offices in Trivandrum during the strike of Union Government employees, and twice in West Bengal in 1969, for the protection of Farakka Barrage.

 

 

 

Pennar river originates from?

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Solution: Nandi Hills in Karnataka

Enrich Your Learning:

Pennar river:

  • The Uttara Pinakini (aka Pennar) is a river of southern India.
  • The Penna rises in the Nandi Hills in Karnataka state, and runs North and East through the states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh to empty into the Bay of Bengal.
  • It is 597 kilometres long, with a drainage basin covering in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
  • The river basin lies in the rain shadow region of Eastern Ghats and receives 500 mm average rainfall annually.
  • The river is seasonal; its main source of the water is rains.

Brahmani river:

  • The Brahmani is a major seasonal river in the Odisha state of Eastern India.
  • The Brahmani is formed by the confluence of the Sankh and South Koel rivers, and flows through the districts of
  • Together with the river Baitarani, it forms a large delta before emptying into the Bay of Bengal at Dhamra, Odisha.

 

 

 

Mention the economic role of temples of Vijayanagara Kingdom.

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Solution:

Temples were centres of economic activity carrying banking activities, irrigation work and landholders.

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Vijayanagara Kingdom

Economic Role of Temples

  • The temples emerged as important landholders.
  • Hundreds of villages were granted to the deities.
  • Temple officers managed the devadana villages to ensure that the grant was utilized properly.
  • Cash, endowments were also made by the state to the temples for providing ritual service.
  • Temples took up irrigational work also.
  • Those who gave cash grants to temples also received a share of the food offering (prasadam) derived from (he increased productivity).
  • Temples in South India were important centres of economic activity. They also carried on banking activities.
  • They employed a number of persons. Mahalingam refers to an inscription which mentions a temple which employed 37 servants.
  • They gave loans to individuals and village assemblies for economic purposes.
  • Thus, the temples functioned almost as an independent economic system encompassing persons and institutions that were bound together by economic links.

Society

  • The social structure of the South Indian macro-region (Vijaynagara Empire) is a unique variant of the Indian society. The uniqueness of the social structure was of three-fold:

–          Secular functions of the South Indian Brahmans

–          Dual division of lower social groups

–          Territorial segmentation of the society.

  • The Brahmans live in localities where they controlled land, and their prestige and power was also derived from their control over those dependent on land. They also enjoyed prestige due to their sacral functions as a priestly class.
  • The emergence of a large number of Vedic temples endowed with villages (devadanas) gave the Brahmans as temple functionaries the power to exercise ritual control over all other castes and religious institutions.
  • Territorial segmentation of society.
  • People gave preference to cross-cousin and maternal uncle-niece marriages.
  • The dual division of lower castes referred to by the right and left-hand designations (Vaishnavas corresponding to the right hand division and the Saivites corresponding to the left hand castes).
  • The right-hand castes were involved primarily in Agricultural production and local trade whereas left-hand castes were engaged in mobile artisan production and extensive trade in non-agricultural products.
  • The peasant was the basis of the social order on whom all other sections of the society depended.
  • The satkams, the Tamil poetic genre, regard the leading peasantry as pure sat-sudras. They claimed ritual purity and respectable secular rank for them.
  • Temples played an important role in delineating or determining social groupings who were the participants in the worship of a particular deity.
  • An important characteristic of lineage in the South Indian kingship is marked by the common devotion to the lineage tutelary.
  • The non-Brahman priests of the peasants tutelary shrines (e.g. amman) also participated in the management of great shrines of Siva and Yishnu where the Brahman priests predominated.
  • The matha the seat of sectarian organisation located at great shrines, consisted of persons of both the Brahman and non-Brahman orders. Thus, the social organisation of this period comprised of the Brahmans, the left and right-hand castes which included respectable agricultural castes, namely vellals and lower castes like the

 

 

 

Industrial Finance Corporation of India is one of the four All India Financial Institutions (AIFIs) regulated and supervised by the Reserve Bank. True OR False.

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Solution: False

Correct Statement:

  • Currently, the four AIFIs regulated and supervised by the Reserve Bank are Export-Import Bank of India (EXIM Bank), National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), National Housing Bank (NHB) and Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI).

Enrich Your Learning:

Industrial Finance Corporation of India (IFCI)

  • IFCI is a Non-Banking Finance Company (NBFC).
  • It was set up in 1948 as Industrial Finance Corporation of India, through `The Industrial Finance Corporation of India Act, 1948’ of Parliament. After repeal of this Act in 1993, IFCI became a Public Limited Company and in 2015, it became a Government Company.
  • IFCI is also a Systemically Important Non-Deposit taking Non-Banking Finance Company (NBFC-ND-SI), registered with the Reserve Bank of India.
  • Objective: To provide medium to long term financial assistance to the manufacturing, services and infrastructure sectors.
  • Through its subsidiaries IFCI has diversified into a range of other businesses including broking, venture capital, financial advisory, depository services, factoring etc.
  • IFCI was one of the promoters of National Stock Exchange (NSE), Stock Holding Corporation of India Ltd (SHCIL), Technical Consultancy Organizations (TCOs) and social sector institutions like Rashtriya Gramin Vikas Nidhi (RGVN), Management Development Institute (MDI) and Institute of Leadership Development (ILD).

Venture Capital Fund & Credit Enhancement Guarantee for SC Entrepreneurs

  • Central Government in FY 2014-15 has mandated IFCI for setting up of a Venture Capital Fund to promote entrepreneurship among the Scheduled Castes (SC).
    • contributed Rs.200 crores while IFCI has committed Rs.50 crores as lead investor and sponsor of the Fund.
    • IFCI’s subsidiary IFCI Venture Capital Funds Ltd., is the Investment Manager of the Fund.
  • Government of India has also provided Rs.200 Crore to IFCI Ltd. in March 2015 under the Scheme of Credit Enhancement Guarantee for Scheduled Caste (SC) Entrepreneurs for providing guarantee to banks against loans to young and start-up entrepreneurs belonging to SC to encourage entrepreneurship in lower strata of the society.

 

 

 

 

Which Ministry of India governs the observances of State mourning over the death of foreign dignitaries?

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Solution: Ministry of Home Affairs

Enrich Your Learning:

Flag of India flown at half-mast:

  • The flag of India is flown at half-mast for the death of a President, Vice-President, or Prime Minister all over India.
  • For the Speaker of the Lok Sabha and the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India, it is flown in Delhi.
  • For a Union Cabinet Minister, it is flown in Delhi and the state capitals, from where he or she came.
  • For a Minister of State, it is flown only in Delhi.
  • For a Governor, Lt. Governor, or Chief Minister of a state or union territory, it is flown in the concerned state.
  • If the intimation of the death of any dignitary is received in the afternoon, the flag shall be flown at half-mast on the following day also at the place or places indicated above, provided the funeral has not taken place before sunrise on that day.
  • On the day of the funeral of a dignitary mentioned above, the flag shall be flown at half-mast at the place of the funeral.

Half-mast day and day of National rejoicing:

  • In the event of a half-mast day coinciding with the Republic Day, Independence Day, National Week (6 to 13 April), any other particular day of national rejoicing as may be specified by the Government of India, or a state, on the anniversary of formation of that state, flags are not permitted to be flown at half-mast except over the building where the body of the deceased is lying until it has been removed and that flag shall be raised to the full-mast position after the body has been removed.
  • Observances of State mourning on the death of foreign dignitaries are governed by special instructions issued from the Ministry of Home Affairs in individual cases.
  • However, in the event of death of either the Head of the State or Head of the Government of a foreign country, the Indian Mission accredited to that country may fly the national flag on the above-mentioned days.

 

 

 

Sonowal Kachari are the indigenous people of a) Assam or b) Sikkim?

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Solution: Assam

Enrich Your Learning:

Sonowal Kachari:

  • The Sonowal Kachari are one of the indigenous people of the state of Assam in Northeast India.
  • They are of Tibeto-Burman origin, and are closely associated with the other ethnic groups of Assam which are commonly referred to as
  • The name Sonowal comes from the word Son which means gold in Assamese.
  • The traditional occupation of Sonowal kacharis was gold panning, that is extracting gold from the riverbeds.
  • The Constitution Order (Scheduled Tribes), 1950 had listed Sonowal Kachari as a Scheduled Tribe as per the Constitution of India in the state of Assam.
  • The headquarters of the Sonowal Kachari Autonomous Council is at Dibrugarh, Assam.

 

 

 

The role of the Indians carrying trade in the overseas was maximum during the Vijayanagara Kingdom. Is this True or False?

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Solution:

False, it was Muslims who has the maximum trade in overseas. They used to trade in Horses, Pearls Velvet etc.

Enrich Your Learning:

Vijayanagara Kingdom

Foreign Trade

  • The foreign trade account known from the Amuktamalyada of Krishnadeva Raya, Domingo Paes and Nuniz.
  • They give vivid description of horse trade. The Arabs and later the Portuguese controlled horse trade. Horses were brought from Arabia, Syria and Turkey to the west coast ports. Goa supplied horses to Vijaynagar as well as the Deccani Sultanates.
  • Importation of horses was of great military importance’ for the southern states as good horses were not bred in India.
  • The role of the Indians in the overseas carrying trade was minimal.
  • Barbosa mentions that Indian overseas trade was completely controlled by Muslim merchants. They used to get special treatment from the rulers. He says that on returning from the Red Sea the king assigned them a mayar bodyguard, a Chetti accountant and a broker for help in local transactions.
  • Besides horses, ivory, pearls, spices, precious stones, coconuts, palm-sugar, salt, etc. were also imported.
  • Pearls were brought from the Persian Gulf and Ceylon and precious stones from Pegu.
  • Velvet was imported from Mecca and satin, silk, damask and brocade from China.
  • Exports – White rice, Sugarcane (other than palm-sugarcane) and iron.
  • Diamonds were exported from Vijaynagar. The principal mines were on the bank of the Krishna river and in Kurnool and Anantapur.

 

Internal Trade and Urban Life

  • The local and long distance trade increased under the Vijayanagara rulers.
  • Roads and roadside-facilities for travellers between towns were excellent.
  • Carts were used for the transport of grains over short distance.
  • Riverine shipping especially the backwater-system on the west-coast.
  • Pack-animals for long distance transport.
  • In some places armed guards for long distance transport were employed.
  • Encouragement to town based trade and auxiliary trade in regular and periodic fairs. These fairs were conducted by trade associations of a nearby town and under the-supervision of the leader of trade association called pattanaswami.
  • The existence of 80 major trade centres.
  • There were many bazaars where business was carried on by merchants. They paid rents to the towns.
  • Markets for agricultural and nonagricultural products were separate in accordance with the left and right hand caste affiliations.
  • The Vijaynagara state possessed an urban quality which is not witnessed in any other South Indian state of the time.
  • The capital city integrated within its precincts markets, palaces, temples, mosques, etc.
  • This urban quality was, however, completely destroyed by the middle-16th century.
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