- 70 years since Independence
- Critical Analysis of the past and present India
- Present and Future Challenges
- What needs to be done for future progress and solution to the challenges?
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Important for Mains & Essay
- India is celebrating 71 years of its independence in 2017 making it important to look where we have reached in social, economic & political front after British left, be it literacy, life expectancy or India’s weight in the world.
- The country has made much progress and it is on the way of being a great power but yet there is much more that can be done to make India a true global powerhouse.
70 years since Independence
- India started with full democracy by giving universal adult franchise and achieved much when compared with other developing countries.
- Unification of the country into one entity is the biggest achievement, which was not even under the British rule as large as and united and consolidated as it is now.
- Democracy was deeply rooted & people are much more integrated from all the parts of the country.
- The consolidation of our parliamentary and electoral democracy, the judicial independence and relatively free media.
- The federal system and recognition of diversity and at the same time the principles of unity.
- People are also better aware of their rights.
Economic and social
- Infrastructure was built-up and installed power capacity also rose.
- 22-23% people below the poverty line bringing more than 700 million people above the poverty line during this time.
- Increase in the life expectancy from 30 to 69 years of age.
- Increase in literacy from 22% to 70%.
- India is now amongst the fastest growing economy in the world at 7% growth rate in 2017.
- The build-up of national capacity in many areas of competence be it technical, managerial, etc. there is an enormous
- Improvements in the status of women, real participation by the people who are otherwise deprived to reservations.
- Not much have been done for poor and poverty particularly in the terms of security, education, basic health.
- There are serious concerns that the society is still driven by the caste, community, religious tensions, obscurantism, unemployment, corruption, empowerment of the poor leading to the simmering discontent.
- Per capita energy consumption & per capita income is still low when compared with other nations.
- Rural upliftment is also a matter of concern.
- Lack of scientific temper and rationalism which has not changed much since independence.
- Foreign policy which led to the present volatile conditions in the neighborhood & lack of vision leading to conflicts with China or even the Kashmir problem.
- Security issues like terrorism across the border and internal problems of naxalism and increasing crime in the society.
Critical Analysis of the past and present India
- It is not just India that has changed, the world has also changed.
- India’s growth should not be taken as granted because it was a struggle to achieve even 3% growth than that of today.
- Due to globalization, capital, goods & services began to move across the borders & migration took place in large scale.
- Internet along with globalization allowed much faster pace of growth for the countries like India, which traditionally were considered underdeveloped or developing.
- India could not take the full advantage of this new world, as done by China because of the delay.
- The country built up the technological capabilities soon after the independence like becoming one of the few countries which can launch satellites into space and one of the 4 countries who have gone to Mars.
- Population born in young India in 80’s-90’s is digitalized and globalized, less superstitious, more scientific, valuing the privacy, which is different from those born before them.
- The World was changing a lot in last decade of the 20th century making socialism, the cold war, common wealth, and nonalignment no sense at all.
- When the global power balance shifted with the collapse of Soviet Union in 1991, India readjusted to it and realign its interests and priorities and adjusted with the new reality of the world.
Present and Future Challenges
- There is a need of an hour for India to become strategically autonomous.
- Need for global alliances and arming ourselves.
- To draw on the technology available in the world to get empowered.
- Issues like Kashmir and use of force, instead of democracy and AFSPA in areas like North-East and Kashmir, are the flaw in the system which needs to be addressed.
- Lower & marginal sections of the society like poor, womens, SC, ST, minorities, backward castes still need the upliftment for bringing them into the mainstream.
- Investing in education and healthcare, and unemployment in large scale is also become crucial for the large population of India.
- There are oppressor tendencies with in the country based on religion or deprivation, Naxalism, Maoism or communal issues and others which needs to be tackled.
- Bringing the benefits of progress to all the sections and lower strata of the society is also to be addressed.
What needs to be done for future progress and solution to the challenges?
- Need for a faster rate of economic growth.
- Lifting the people out of the poverty.
- Bring more egalitarian process of development, complemented and supplemented by lot more state action to take care of the weaker and lower section of the society.
- The productivity of the agriculture must also be raised if population rise has to be dealt with and rural areas also have to be attended.
- Political steps and government schemes are going to be helpful but more important is political & social stability and unity from inside.
- Politics and political leaders can play a big role from ground level leaders to central level ensuring togetherness.
- Keeping the past experiences in the mind and taking more focused steps by state and policy makers on resources and technology, & exploiting the strength, on healthcare, education and such sections, where the private sector cannot be expected to bridge the gap.
- To make sure that the country remains secure from outside and within.
- Playing the main role as a regional power and hence becoming the global power also needs to be considered steadily.
- All sections of the society have to become responsible and should get the fruits of the progress achieved or to be achieved in the future without feeling insecure.
- The genius of traditional values of Indian society of living together without any problem, accepting other cultures and getting more tolerant towards others is to be maintained for strengthening and empowering
- Respecting the plurality & diversity of the people in this country, unity and progress will come on its own.